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Short-sightedness and astigmatism

Myopia and astigmatism are frequently associated, and can be corrected with glasses, lenses, or operation of refractive surgery. The chosen correction depends on the level (strength) and the origin (horny or crystalline) of astigmatism. Refractive surgery is effective to correct astigmatism associated with myopia: in most situations, astigmatism correction is accomplished at the same time as that of myopia.

Effect of in the myopic astigmatism

Visual blurring caused by myopia is accentuated by those associated with astigmatism : However, this is not really noticeable and it is not possible to distinguish the specific effect of blurring the astigmatism of one related to myopia for a short-sighted and have astigmatism subject-related. However, if it corrects only nearsightedness, and astigmatism remains, the latter will affect visual perception.

Depending on the degree of uncorrected astigmatism, there will be a reduction in Visual acuity (loss of tenths), either a light duplication around bright lights or subtitles. Despite a sharp close or equal to 10/10. The correction of myopia and astigmatism is therefore necessary to ensure optimal vision. This correction can be made through the following features:

-Glass of glasses: nearsightedness and astigmatism are corrected by a sphero-cylindrical glass : the "sphere" is a concave glass (negative power) that corrects nearsightedness, and the 'cylinder' a glass o-ring, whose power is variable depending on the orientation of the considered Meridian: maximum zero next to the axis 'long' of glass, in the against axis.

glass astigmatism correction

A "cylindrical" glass has a variable power between the meridians, which is curvature zero: the "cylindrical" term comes from the fact that glass test is comparable to a portion of the cylinder, or molded on a cylinder glass.

Correct myopia and astigmatism with glasses glasses, to conduct a review of the refraction, and use spherical and cylindrical glasses on a mount to test (or an automated mount). The cylindrical glasses correct myopic astigmatism, and are oriented based on the axis of astigmatism measured by auto refractometer.

The cylindrical glass of test allows to correct the myopic astigmatism: Unlike the spherical glass, optical power varies depending on the direction (axis) of the considered Meridian. Top right: concave cylindrical glass correction power varies between 0-6 diopter and diopter azimuth: power is zero in the "centerline" of glass (marked by the triangular markers). It is-6 D in the glass can be "positioned" in the mount to test on a particular axis. If refraction is plan (-6 x 90 °), the glass is oriented in a vertical direction (such on the cliché top-right).

The cylindrical glass of test allows to correct the myopic astigmatism: Unlike the spherical glass, optical power varies depending on the direction (axis) of the considered Meridian. Top right: concave cylindrical glass correction power varies between 0-6 diopter and diopter azimuth: power is zero in the "centerline" of glass (marked by the triangular markers). It is-6 D in the glass can be "positioned" in the mount to test on a particular axis. If refraction is plan (-6 × 90 °), the glass is oriented in a vertical direction (such on the cliché top-right).

– O-ring Contact lens : she must also present a stabilization system, to stay properly oriented on the cornea.

– LASIK/PKR : can the ablation profile issued to correct nearsightedness and astigmatism at the same time. Depending on the degree of astigmatism, the thickness and the regularity of the cornea, the realization of a PKR or a LASIK may be preferable.

– Cataract surgery : in case (more than 1 diopter) significant corneal astigmatism, the laying of a toric implant can be proposed. The character 'o-ring' of the implant to correct astigmatism. The toric implant should be steered accurately during surgery.


Association of myopia and astigmatism

The association between myopia and astigmatism is relatively frequent. The role for astigmatism in the appearance or the evolution of myopia is not shown. Some studies suggest that the presence of astigmatism accelerates the progression of myopia. It seems the high myopia (more than 6 dioptres) comes more readily says astigmatism «» direct "(the cornea is more cambered on that horizontal vertical meridians: the centerline of the concave cylindrical glass correction test is oriented in a horizontal direction).


Origin of astigmatism associated with myopia

Eye astigmatism is mainly caused by the cornea, which has a certain degree of 'toricite '. The astigmatic patient's cornea is similar to a toric surface because it has one variable bend according to the meridians.

corneal astigmatism

The completion of a topographical examination and aberrometrique (OPDscan III, Nidek) allows to measure refractive astigmatism and myopia. The collection of corneal topography permits the calculation of corneal astigmatism, and internal astigmatism (distribution of astigmatism)

Some cataracts cause the appearance of a refractive astigmatism related changes who sit at the level of the lens. The lens is the lens inside the eye: located behind the cornea, the lens allows, by deforming to see net close)accommodation).  One speaks then ofastigmatism internal. "Corneal" astigmatism and 'internal' astigmatism combine to give since the incident light suffers the effect of the cornea and the front lens "refractive" astigmatism, "to impress' the retina (see" ") Eye and optical »).

Refractive astigmatism is the one that is measured as the degree of optical correction of astigmatism to prescribe to correct vision at best. Thus, when it undergoes an eye exam with letters to identify with the use of a correction in glasses, we measure refractive astigmatism. The specific measure of corneal astigmatism requires conducting a corneal topography, or a measure known as "k" (refracto-keratometer auto).


Short-sightedness and astigmatism: explanations

One can understand this optical defect (myopia and astigmatism) as that of myopia whose degree would be different depending on the concerned (meridians) axes.  When an astigmatism is associated to myopia, this means that some meridians are 'more myopic' than others. The greater the difference, the more astigmatism. Called the association of myopia and astigmatism of the «» compound myopic astigmatism ».

myopic astigmatism, schema

In this example, the eye is myopic and astigmatism. Astigmatism is corneal original: the cornea is "o-ring". She is more arched along the vertical (90 °) Meridian along the horizontal Meridian (0 °). Of course, all meridians of the cornea are too "powerful", and do focus the rays in front of the retina (myopia). In this example, the vertical Meridian (highlighted in red in the level of the cornea) is the most powerful: vergence excess associated with myopia is 5 diopters next to this Meridian, while the excess of vergence is only 2 diopters next to the horizontal Meridian. Between these two meridians, the excess of vergence varies gradually between 2 and 5 dioptres (at 45 ° and 135 °, meridians located at path between 0 ° - 190 ° and 90 °); the excess power is 3.5 D (sum-2D and half of-1.5D =-3.50D).

For whether of astigmatism is present in a lens correction, we must look at the formula correction (or refraction). Myopia is the first turnover, preceded by a negative sign (ex:-3), astigmatism is the second digit that axis is associated with (ex:-1 x 0 °). In this example,-1 corresponds to the 'magnitude' of astigmatism, and 90 ° is his "orientation" (axis). We must understand this expression (-1 x 0 °) as «» the meridian of axis at 0 ° has an optical power or vergence which is lesser of a diopter than has the Prime Meridian perpendicular axis "(i.e., the Meridian located at 90 ° in this example). There are several ways to write the formula of myopia associated with astigmatism, according to the choice of a sign that is used to express the difference of optical power between the meridians.

In summary: The degree of astigmatism is simply the difference between the meridians of extreme vergence (low, high). Astigmatism of 3 diopters means that there is a difference of 3 diopters between the most powerful Meridian and the meridian of the less powerful. The axis used for the notation of astigmatism (in degree) is one of the most powerful Meridian (notation in positive cylinder) or the less powerful (notation in negative cylinder).


Ratings of compound myopic astigmatism

Astigmatism associated with myopia can be expressed by different notations, as the magnitude of astigmatism is expressed in positive or negative. For example:-1 (-2 × 0 °) is a notation in negative cylinder. It means that the horizontal Meridian (0 °) has a 'deficit' of optical power towards the Meridian that is perpendicular (90 °) - astigmatism is associated here with myopia of - 1 d. Because of the association of this myopia-1 d (we can call it 'associated with myopic sphere of 1 D'), we can consider that this optical defect is equivalent to a myopia of 3 diopters next to the vertical (90 °) Meridian and a diopter adjustment next to the horizontal Meridian (0 °). It is true that the formula of writing (which is a form of prescription erected on conventions) suggests the opposite...

We can write this astigmatism associated with myopia in "positive cylinder", as follows:-3 (+ 2 × 90 °) the vertical (90 °) Meridian has an excess of power of + 2 D towards the perpendicular Meridian (0 °): myopia is of 3 diopters next to the vertical Meridian, and a diopter adjustment next to the horizontal Meridian. There are formulas for conversions to convert a formula called positive negative cylinder cylinder.

See: more information on astigmatism

Special clinical situations

The presence of a slight astigmatism (less than one diopter) is very common in short-sighted.  It is rare to do not measure a quarter (0.25) or a half (0.50 diopter of astigmatism associated with myopia. Some situations duopied cause the appearance of a particular astigmatism:

Congenital astigmatism

It is detected in childhood, at the same time as nearsightedness, and don't is growing little or no during growth. There are unilateral or bilateral forms.


Keratoconus is a Pathology caused by the repeated eye rubbing (according to the author of this site, is not a primitive dystrophy but indeed a mechanical pathology, favored by the allergy, and more generally anything that can push patients to rub their eyes, often since adolescence). In the advanced forms of Keratoconus, astigmatism can reach several diopters (up to 7 or 8 D), which complicates the prescription glasses glass and forces to wear a correction in o-rings or rigid lenses. This astigmatism is linked to the deformation of the cornea, and is associated with an "irregular" component in the beginner forms of Keratoconus (ex: infra clinical Keratoconus, which meets in patients who are 'a bit' rubbing eyes), astigmatism is often oblique direction (more camber Meridian is close to the axis 45 ° to the left eye, and 135 ° to the right eyes), or reverse (more camber Meridian is close to the horizontal direction).

Corneal scars

After a trauma resulting in a plague of the cornea, the appearance of an astigmatism is common. The cataract surgery performed in "manual" way, in a technique called 'extra capsular', is often the cause of a pronounced astigmatism, initially related to the placement of sutures, then later next to the scar the cornea is released.


Cataract surgery

Modern surgery is performed through small incisions (2 mm or less), which allows to limit so-called "induced" astigmatism, which meets when the incisions are wider (3 mm and more). When an astigmatism is present before the surgery, he must determine whether it is from the cornea or the lens, or a combination of cristallinien and corneal astigmatism. To a toric implant allows to correct the severe corneal astigmatismes, and all or part of the myopia. It takes a standard biometric calculation and order a toric implant, which neutralizes the corneal astigmatism.

astigmatism, toric implant

The cataract surgery in a patient with 2 diopters of corneal astigmatism oblique can be done with a toric implant placement. The implant generates an astigmatism "opposite direction" astigmatism of the cornea. Biometrics to calculate the power of the implant. Located on the o-ring implant brands can align in the direction desired (positioning of the implant axis was marked in surgical ink on the limb, on the periphery of the cornea).

In case of important post operative astigmatism, needed a corneal topography. Corneal astigmatism is not at the origin of refractive astigmatism, should suspect a displacement of the implant.


Subluxation of the lens

The displacement of the lens is original traumatic ('coup' on the eye) or associated with a general disease (ex:) Marfan syndrome). Astigmatism can reach a relatively high value, and evolve according to the displacement of the Crystalline lens.


Cornea transplant

The cornea transplant (keratoplasty keratoplasty) often causes an astigmatism pronounced, associated to the myopia. The withdrawal of the son can reduce the astigmatism, but wearing a lens correction is often necessary.


Surgical correction of astigmatism associated with myopia.

Many pages of the site detail the principles and surgical methods of correction of an optical defect involving short-sightedness and astigmatism.


It is done most often jointly to myopia, the correction of astigmatism is programmed into the software that drives the excimer laser.  The distribution of spots in case of pronounced astigmatism is special: many spots are delivered along the flat (see:) profile of simple myopic astigmatism laser ablation). The realization of a Oval flap (or elliptical) is indicated, if the femtosecond laser allows this modality. When possible, the LASIK technique allows corrections of astigmatism greater than the PKR (lower risk of slot correction). The use of a technique of Iris recognition is recommended, to align the treatment of astigmatism on the desired axis. This technique is a mapping of the iris with a topographer to effecuter (the patient sits and the head is prop on a horizontal Chin rest), and transmit it to the excimer laser. A comparison between the transmitted image and the image "seen" by the laser at the time of issuing the correction excimer is performed. If the eye rotated (the patient goes under the laser and the position of the head can slightly be changed), a correction and a realigement of the axis is made to match the axis which was that of the eye "sitting". astigmatism and myopia correction laser

astigmatism and myopia excimer laser correction

Correction of astigmatism associated with myopia. The Fomrule is-3 (-4 x 0 °). The most myopic meridian is located at 90 ° (it is myopic with 7 diopters). The least myopic meridian is the horizontal meridian (it is myopic with 3 diopters). In orange, the ablation profile is emphasized for the correction of myopia (the laser first corrects myopia, dark orange, and then the "spherical" portion of the remaining light orange myopia). A transition zone is required in relation to the least arched meridians (yellow-pointed profile next to the horizontal meridian). For reasons related to the geometry of the treatment and the cornea, the distribution of the spots is mainly in relation to the horizontal meridians. In LASIK, the production of an oval flap (elliptical) is interesting to optimize the delivery of treatment on the cornea.



It is necessary to provide for the installation of an O-implant to correct the corneal component of astigmatism (the Cristallinienne component is removed during surgery).


Corneal relaxing incisions

In this context, the femtosecond laser is a certain input, due to the precision provided as a track, depth, and extension of the incisions. The use of the incisions is particularly interesting in case of astigmatism post transplant.

43 responses to "myopia and astigmatism"

  1. Sonia says:

    Hello doctor can you tell me if I'm operable or not.

    OD =-6.50 (-4.50 to 175 ′)
    OG =-4.50 (-4.50 to 175 ′)
    Subjective refraction:
    OD =-6.50 (-4.50 to 170 ′) = 6/10
    OG =-4.50 (-4.25 to 175 ′) = 7/10
    ROD = 45,48/41,63 km = 45.56 AXES OD = 87 '/177
    ROG = 45,21/41,30 km = 43.26 AXES OG = 83 '/173
    TOD = 13 mm Hg TOG = 11mm HG
    PRODUCT US 536 u ODG
    FODG: NORMAL posterior POLE
    Volk 90 ′: normal periphery.
    Thank you

  2. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    It is difficult to give you a definitive opinion, but you're potentially operable in LASIK, provided that your corneas are regular and their healthy biomechanical State. This type of correction is available for recent lasers, use of ablations issued with the technique of Iris recognition, to align the correction of astigmatism on the cornea. The right eye is more important than the left eye correction, and an adjustment of the diameter of the optical zone will be may be necessary to reduce the depth of ablation Central (and volume). A preoperative pupillometry will allow to adjust this diameter.

  3. Bishop says:

    I've had a non-evolutionary keratoconus for 10 years. I had worn rigid lenses that were more bothered to adapt because I had a good view in glasses.
    I do a lot of sports and I wanted to know if the soft lenses are adaptable for my case? If so what type?
    My correction is as follows:
    OD:-1.5 (-1.5 to 95)
    OG:-1 (-2.25 to 140)
    Pachy 529/514

    Thank you

  4. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    Initially, it must be possible to adapt flexible lenses to correct your refraction. The quality of vision should be less than the one you have into rigid lenses, but comfort should be higher, the time of sport for example. Soft lenses should be o-rings (in addition to nearsightedness, astigmatism correction).

  5. Josephine says:

    Hello Dr. Gatinel,
    I am myopic and astigmatism, following my consultation yesterday with an ophthalmologist, it seems that I am forbidden to wear lenses unless it is rigid lenses and still...
    Here's my FIX:
    Right Eye:-5.00 (-4.00) 15 °
    Left Eye:-3.25 (3.25) 5 °
    Could you give me your opinion?
    Advise Me on the possibilities to no longer wear glasses (operation?)

    Thank you.

  6. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    Adaptation in rigid lenses is actually a possibility. Astigmatism seems too important to be corrected in-rings soft lenses. A correction in LASIK is an option, provided that the corneal thickness is sufficient.

  7. leoualid says:

    Hello Dr. Gatinel
    This is what is noted in my son's order of three and a half years
    Vision from afar:
    Right eye:-0.50 (-1 to 35 °)
    Left Eye:-0.50 (-2.25 to 175 °)
    Refraction Strictly unmodifiable (non-transformable ordinance + + +)
    Inter-pupillary variance estimated as indicative to be verified by the graduated optician: 51 mm
    Wanted to help me better understand his state and is it possible to correct his eyesight with glasses or an operation?
    And I would like to know it has how much on 10 in each eye by thanking you infinitely

  8. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    Your son has a bilateral, congenital, myopic astigmatism (with a slight myopia of-0.50D) and its correction is necessary to enable it to form a good image at the level of the retina, and ensure a good visual development. Astigmatism surgery applies only to adults. There is nothing in particular to do so outside normal checks and controls, it is important that your child wears his glasses. Astigmatism is a form slightly circular of the cornea, it should remain roughly constant in the future. Nearsightedness can evolve at a pace that it is impossible to predict at the moment.

  9. Stick Brahmaji says:

    Hello Dr. Gatinel,
    Here's what my prescription says
    OD:-6.25 + 4.00 95 °
    OG:-4.75 + 2.50 100 °

    I would like to know if it is possible to wear this type of view contact lenses and if so, what kind of lens? I would also like to have an idea about the cost it might have. Thank you.

  10. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    Your refractive error (ametropia) is a compound myopic astigmatism. It can be corrected in lenses, probably rigid. Please consult a competent ophthalmologist for the adaptation of the difficult case (contactologue) contact lenses.

  11. Med says:

    Hello Dr. Gatinel,
    Here's my FIX:-1.50-1.25 30
    -1.25-0.75 150

    I would like to know if a trans PKR would correct me to 0? Or do we need another intervention, which one? Thank you

  12. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    A PKR (surface laser) is quite able to correct this type of low myopia + astigmatism (compound myopia astigmatism).

  13. Lili says:

    Hello Dr. Gatinel,
    Here's what my old ordinance says (it's been a year):
    OD:-1.75 (-1.50 to 5 °)
    OG:-5 (-1.50 to 160 °)
    Now my ophthalmologist has told me that my vision has not changed and he wrote to me:
    OD:-1.75 (-1.50 to 180 °)
    OG:-5 (-1.25 to 5 °)
    I would like to know if there is a fault regarding the cylinder axis of both eyes;
    Is this 5 ° for OD and 180 ° for OG?
    I have another question: why is the prescription of soft lenses different from that of glasses?
    OD:-2.5 and not-1.75?
    I do not see well by the lens straight like the glasses!

  14. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    The differences reported between the two corrections are minor and can be observed over time, without this reflecting a severe problem. Lens prescriptions are different because the prescribed lenses do not directly correct astigmatism (as do the toroidal lenses), and that beyond-4.50, one tends to slightly reduce the correction of the lens towards that of the Glass of glasses (which is located further away from the "center" of the Eye).

  15. Richard Caroline says:

    Good evening Dr. Damien Ganeshan, I allow myself to inquire by your experience and your knowledge!
    I wear glasses since the age of my years, I have 43 now and it is really that I would like from time to time Prter of the lentiles, I have done two Tests in my life. The first one, I saw better with my glasses and it was perturban for me, so I did not continue. Three years ago, I réeesayé in the Netherlands and I had a headache on the right side, we know made PHOTOS5! ° more precise and as I moved and that it had taken too much time... I did not continue..
    I would love to start again, knowing that I do not wish to have lenses that we change every month, but a pair of lenses, I know that they must be rigid
    Here are my current data
    Right Eye-1.00 (+ 3.00) 95 °
    Left eye _ 1.25 (+ 3.25) 80 °
    If you can, please hand me over!
    And another question, what do you think, of the yoga of the eyes, compared to my case and the Bates method?
    Thank you and wish you a nice continuation of sharing.
    Kind regards

  16. Narjisse says:


    I was born on 30/10/1980.

    I did a lazik operation ten years ago.
    Currently my correction is the following

    Right eye-0.5 (-1.75 to 180 °)
    Left eye-0.5

    I have a fine cornea.

    Is there a solution apart from the fact of wearing glasses.
    I read in your articles the O-ring.

  17. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    The possibility of a LASIK retouching (flap reuplift) depends on the residual thickness of the cornea. It is necessary to measure the thickness of the flap of LASIK and the total thickness of the cornea, and of these values it is then possible to confirm or not the possibility of re-operation.

  18. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    You should actually consult in "Contactology" near your home (specialized adaptation of contact lenses), as you present a large mixed astigmatism. The Bates method will not be able to do anything against it a priori.

  19. Ginget says:

    Hello this is for my daughter 4 months here is what and writes on the letter of the ophthalmologist
    + 4.00 (-2.00) 160 ° to right, + 4.00 (-2.00) 10 °
    I would like to know that it means
    Thanks in advance.

  20. Kami says:

    Hello Dr. Damien Ganeshan,
    I've been wearing glasses for 04 years and here's my current data
    Glasses from afar
    OD-0.75 (-2.25) axis 15 °
    OG-1.25 (-0.50) Shaft 160 °
    EP 61mm
    What are you consulting me, thank you and wish you a nice continuation

  21. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    You have a "direct", more marked, right-hand, bilateral astigmatism. The wearing of a correction in glasses (or lenses) appears indicated, and laser refractive surgery is also an option, subject to operability.

  22. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    Your daughter has a hypemrétropie and an astigmatism of both eyes. It is necessary to monitor and correct this in accordance with the examinations carried out and subsequent follow-up.

  23. Nabiha says:

    I'm 39 years old. I'm myopic and astigmatism. I wear soft lens: OD-5.50; OG – 2.50 (-0.75 180 °) Since I was 22 years old, my eyesight was stable. And there for three years my view has changed to the left eye. Now I am-2 (-2 to 180 °). I have been prescribed soft-O sphere-2 lenses (-1.75 180 °) but I see blurry with. And yet I have not changed the brand of lens. Could you steer me? And why I don't see sharper with the lens.
    Is there another type of lens?
    Kind regards

  24. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    It is necessary to recheck your vision by wearing the lens of the left eye, to verify that it is properly aligned, and that the power that had been measured (evolution of your astigmatism) is the right one.

  25. Moulay Ahmed KADIRI says:

    I am 42 years old, I am myopic and astigmatism, correction OD (22 -4)-5, OG (160-4)-4.25, following my last medical check on 21/08/2018.
    I can wear glasses or if I can be operated

    Thank you

  26. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    An intervention could be envisaged provided that the corneas have favorable characteristics, and that there is no contraindication to surgery on the ocular plane. A bezel correction is of course the "default" solution to correct your vision.

  27. Guhaverl says:

    I am 30 years old and I am myopic and astigmatism.
    Since my young age I wear glasses of sight.. But for a few years, my eyesight has stabilized on:
    OD: (0 _ 1.00)-6.57
    OG: (10 ° 2.00)-5.25
    Can I have surgery? Otherwise what type of lenses should I take?
    Thank you

  28. Fau says:


    I just went to the ophthalmologist, and she noted on my prescription:
    Right eye:-1.25 (-0.50 to 180 °)
    Left Eye:-1.50 (-0.25 to 10 °)
    While on my order from last year, the figures were:
    Right Eye:-1.00 (-0.25 to 10 °)
    Left Eye:-1.00 (-0.50 to 175 °)

    Is it normal that the numbers between the brackets have reversed in one year, from one eye to another? Or is it possible that there is a fault on my prescription?
    Kind regards

  29. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    This type of change is quite possible. Eye astigmatism "oscillates" twice on 360 °. The 0 ° and 180 ° axes are identical. Only 10 ° separate an astigmatism with an axis at 170 ° and another with an axis at 0 ° (because 170 ° is equivalent to-10 °, and 0 ° is equivalent to 180 °).

  30. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    A priori, a surgical correction is possible, provided that your pre-operative record is compatible with the realization of a refractive surgery technique.

  31. Cristine says:

    Hello Dr. Damien ganeshan,
    I have been wearing glasses for 12 years and régides lenses for 2 years (OD: diameter 9:60/Rayon8:00/power-4) (OG: diameter 9:60/Rayon8; 00/puissane-4; 50)
    I have been prescribed soft-o lenses and here is the Data:
    -corrective Lenses (OD: sphere-2.25/cylinder-2.75/axle: 10 °) (OG: sphere-1.75/cylinder-3.75/axle 165 °)
    -contact lenses:
    * OD:-power-2.25 (-2.5 to 10 °)
    -radius 8.03/7.58 mm
    -diameter 14 mm
    * OG-power-1.75 (-3.5 to 165 °)
    -radius 8.08/7.54 mm
    -diameter 14 mm
    -what type of lenses should I take? I'm A 22-year-old girl, am I operable?
    I wish you a nice continuation..

  32. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    It is necessary to provide these inications to the optician who will be able to choose or control the corresponding toroidal lenses. It is at least theoretically possible to propose you an intervention of refractive surgery, provided that the pre-operative balance does not detect contraindications to the Intervention.

  33. Nelly says:


    I just went to the ophthalmologist, and she noted on my prescription:
    Right Eye:-1.50 (-0.50 to 60 °)
    Left Eye:-1.50 (-0.50 to 120 °)
    With anti-glare and photochromic application
    While on my order from last year, the figures were:
    Right eye:-0.75 (90 °)
    Left Eye:-0.75 (125 °)
    With anti-glare and photochromic application
    Why such an increase in a year, is that the increase will be felt every year in addition now when I remove the glasses, the vision is a little blurry and the left eye flows tears. Besides, I work all day on a computer screen.
    Kind regards

  34. Little says:

    My five-year-old son has been wearing glasses since he was 3 years old.
    Here are the current corections:
    Right eye + 2.75 (-5 to 7 °)
    Left eye + 1.50 (-6 to 175 °)
    Can you please interpret these numbers?
    Until then my old ophthalmologist told me that we would get him to see a 9/10 with his glasses on each eye.
    But today he's retired and my new ophthalmologist is talking about keratoconus. He wants to see him again with drops. I am a lost can you help me understand.
    Thanks in advance
    Kind regards

  35. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    Your son has an important "mixed" astigmatism. This astigmatism is congenital, its direction is called "compliant". To simplify, the radius of curvature of its corneas is a can too "bent" vertically, and not horizontal enough. A priori it is not a keratoconus (affection that appears later, after a few years of eye rubbing repeated and vigorous eyes). If your son is sufficiently calm and cooperating to pass a corneal topography, you will be able to reinforce the diagnosis of congenital astigmatism. A correction in the bezel must be carried out and worn constammment. In the future, an adaptation to O-contact lenses can be made, and by the majority a laser refractive surgery (LASIK) if necessary.

  36. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    Regarding your astigmatism, the variations are not so important despite the changes in the observed figures. The computer creates no astigmatism, but can cause some visual fatigue symptoms and "unmask" the need for a correction that would not be felt in the context of a less visually demanding activity.

  37. Hala says:

    Hello doctor
    I'm 23 years old, here's my current data:

    OD:-2.00 (-4.00) to 180
    OG:-1.50 (-3.50) to 160

    I would like to understand my situation and what you advise me to do. Thank you and good luck.

  38. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    You have a compound nearsighted astigmatism (myopia and astigmatism). Myopia varies according to the meridian axis (from-2 to-6 for the right eye, and from-1.50 to-5 for the left eye). This type of refractive error (Ametropia) can be corrected in glasses, O-rings (correction of astigmatism) or in refractive surgery (LASIK, based on pre-operative balance sheet data).

  39. DOCK says:

    Hello Dr,
    After consultation, the specialist gave the following results:
    -Astigmatism + Myopia
    -OD =-3
    -OG =-7
    Can the glasses correct? Please

    Thank you

  40. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    There is a difference of 4 diopters between the correction of the two eyes, and this corresponds to what is called a "anisometropia". It is possible (probable) that this correction is very uncomfortable in glasses, because the size of the images perceived by the eye will be different (Anéisoconie). The myopic correction lenses induce a slight reduction in the size of the image projected on the retina (we see "smaller" through glasses of glasses that correct myopia). In the case A different correction between the two eyes (beyond 3 diopters in practice), the size mismatch of perceived images is too important for the brain to be able to "merge" them. We feel like we're seeing double. A correction by contact lenses or refractive surgery helps to alleviate this problem.

  41. DOCK says:

    Hello Dr Thank you for answering me!
    It's true what you say because the lenses I took reduces the images even reading. I work a lot on computer and I have to use the lenses. I've had Mooren's ulcer in the past and the multiple operations have weakened my vision.

    Should I continue to wear these glasses to hope for a correction or give up?

    Thank you

  42. boris dussart says:

    Hello Doctor,
    I have a strong astigmatism and medium myopia, and I wanted to know if it was possible to perform a laser operation only with regard to myopia?

  43. Dr. Damien Gatinel says:

    This eventuality is theoretically possible, but does not have a great interest (astigmatism blurs the vision from afar and vision closely, so it would be useful to correct it to obtain a good vision without glasses from afar and/or close).

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